Intersexuality & Body Image
Although we tend to assume that the world is divided into just two sexes, male and female, some people are born with both male and female anatomical traits. Intersexuals are individuals who possess ambiguous reproductive or sexual anatomy (and/or chromosomes) that cannot be definitively categorized as either male or female (ISNA, 2008). The causes of intersexuality are purely biological, usually associated with chromosomal variations (Vilain, 2006). Intersexuality is not psychological in origin, nor is it a mental disorder.
How Common is Intersexuality?
Statistics on the prevalence of intersexuality are estimates, and there is some controversy about which conditions count as intersex. The statistics only represent those conditions of acute ambiguity that are reported. Additionally people often do not discover their intersexuality until puberty or later in life (as in the case of someone who appears externally female, but has internal male reproductive anatomy), and some never discover their condition so an accurate prevalence rate is impossible to determine. However:
- Experts generally agree that the prevalence of intersexuality is 1 in every 2000 births.
- It is also estimated that about 1 in 100 infants exhibit some anomaly in sex differentiation that is not extreme enough to be considered intersex (ISNA, 2008).
Parents and doctors often hide a diagnosis of intersexuality from children in an attempt to shield them from psychological harm (Diamond, 1997). Intersex infants typically undergo "corrective" surgery to make their genitalia unambiguously male or female. In most cases, such surgery is not necessary for the physical health of the child, but is rather done to make the child's body conform to societal expectations about sex and gender.
While the intent behind the surgery is to allow intersex children to develop “normal” gender identities and healthy self-esteem, research suggests that when families and medical professionals fail to acknowledge intersexuality, children may experience a sense of shame and isolation (Preves, 2002). Furthermore, such cosmetic surgery done in infancy can result in loss of sensation in the genitals, infertility, physical discomfort, psychological distress, and impairment of sexual function and satisfaction (Preves, 2002).
Effects on Body Image
Intersexuals often find such childhood medical interventions traumatic both to their bodies and their minds (Turner, 1999). They are left with physical and emotional scars that serve as constant reminders of their difference (Chase, 1998). Some come to view their bodies as grotesque, damaged and undesirable. Researchers have reported increased incidence of certain mental health issues related to body image and self-concept in the intersexual population:
- Self-consciousness, self-hatred and resentment toward their bodies (Preves, 2002).
- Feelings of shame, inadequacy, and anger that affect the way they see themselves and interact with others (Preves, 2002).
- Self-consciousness in sexual experiences, avoidance of sexual contact, and difficulty forming healthy relationships (Chase, 1998).
- And contemplated, attempted, and sometimes successful suicide (Diamond, 1997).
Creating a Positive Intersexual Identity
Intersexuality has been described as a “lifelong pattern of secrecy, isolation, shame, and confusion” (Koyama, 2008). However, once intersexuals learn their true medical histories, many experience relief at finally having their confusion and sense of difference explained. They can identify as intersexuals and they can connect with other people who share similar experiences.
Support networks help intersexuals realize that they’re not alone, (Hermaphrodites Speak!, 1997). Speaking with others who understand the complex emotions they experience can ease feelings of isolation, shame and guilt (Turner, 1999), and lead to greater body acceptance.
Intersexuality Around the World
As one form of naturally occurring biological variation, intersexuality exists in all societies around the world. However, it is not equally stigmatized in all cultures, and is even celebrated in some.
In India, for example, most intersex infants are classified as Hijra, a socially recognized third gender group. Hijra are characterized by their distinctive dress and language style, and they fulfill special ritual roles, particularly in matters related to fertility, marriage and childbirth. Their unique blend of male and female physical characteristics is believed to endow them with certain spiritual powers, beliefs no doubt related to the fact that many Hindu deities have both male and female aspects. Hijra generally oppose surgical or cosmetic “correction,” and instead embrace their special place in Indian society (Reddy 2005).
Why does our society demand that individuals are unambiguously male or female? How do people react when they can't determine someone's gender?
If intersexuality is a naturally occurring form of sexual variation, do we need to rethink our sex and gender categories to include more than two?
In what ways does "corrective" cosmetic surgery for non-consenting infants differ from male or female circumcision (also sometimes called genital mutilation)? In what ways is it similar?
- Chase, C. (1998). Hermaphrodites with attitude; mapping the emergence of intersex political activism. Journal of Lesbian Gay Studies, 189-211.
- Chase, C. (1997). Hermaphrodites Speak! Rohnert Park: Intersex Society of North America.
- Diamond, M. (1997). Sexual identity and sexual orientation in children with traumatized or ambiguous genitalia. The Journal of Sex Research, 34, 199-211.
- Intersex Society of North America. (2008). Intersex society of North America. Retrieved May 8. 2009, from Intersex Society of North America
- Koyama, E. (2008). Intersex medical treatment and sexual trauma. Intersex Initiative Retrieved May 12, 2008, from Intersex Initiative
- Preves, S. E. (2002). Sexing the intersexed: an analysis of sociocultural responses to intersexuality. Signs, 27, 523-556.
- Reddy,G. (2005) With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Turner, S. T. (1999). Intersex identities: locating new intersections of sex and gender. Gender and Society, 13, 457-479.
- Vilain, E. (2006). Genetics of intersexuality. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 10, 9- 26.